Development of Tomato bushy stunt virus-based vectors for fusion and non-fusion

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grdr

Development of Tomato bushy stunt virus-based vectors for fusion and non-fusion expression of heterologous proteins in an alternative host Nicotiana excelsiana 

Plant virus-based expression systems are an alternative expression platform for the production of clinically and industrially useful recombinant proteins. Nonetheless, due to a lack of viral vector with the commercial potentials, it is urgent to design and develop new, versatile, and efficient plant virus vectors.

The genome of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) offers an attractive alternative to being modified as a vector for producing heterologous proteins in plants.

Here, we developed a set of novel fusion and non-fusion TBSV-CP replacement vectors, which provide more flexible and efficient tools for expressing proteins of interest in plants. An alternative tobacco plant, Nicotiana excelsiana, was used in this study as a host for newly constructed TBSV vectors because the unwanted necrotic effects were reported on the commonly used Nicotiana benthamiana host associated with expression of TBSV-encoded P19 protein.

The data showed that TBSV vectors caused a symptomless infection and overexpressed reporter gene in N. excelsiana leaves, demonstrating that N. excelsiana is an ideal host plant for TBSV-mediated heterologous gene expression. Moreover, a TBSV non-fusion vector, dAUG, shows the similar accumulation level of reporter proteins to that of TMV- and PVX-based vectors in side-by-side comparison and provides more flexible aspects than the previously developed TBSV vectors. Collectively, our newly developed TBSV expression system adds a new member to the family of plant viral expression vectors and meanwhile offers a flexible and highly effective approach for producing proteins of interest in plants.

 

KEY POINTS:

• The TBSV-based transient expression system has been significantly improved.

  • The necrotic effects caused by viral P19 protein were avoided by the usage of N.   excelsiana as a host plant.
  • The expression level of the non-fusion vector was similar to the most effective virus   vectors reported so far.
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grdr

Anti-CD163

DB-045-RTU-15 15 ml
EUR 424.8
Description: rabbit monospecific clonal antibodies for ihc-p application; prediluted (ready to use)

Anti-CD163

DB-045-RTU-7 7 ml
EUR 277.2
Description: rabbit monospecific clonal antibodies for ihc-p application; prediluted (ready to use)

Anti-CD163

DB045RTU-15 15 ml
EUR 424.8
Description: rabbit monospecific clonal antibodies for ihc-p application; prediluted (ready to use)

Anti-CD163

DB045RTU-7 7 ml
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Description: rabbit monospecific clonal antibodies for ihc-p application; prediluted (ready to use)

Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) ELISA Kit

DLR-CD163-Mu-48T 48T
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Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) in samples from serum, plasma or other biological fluids.

Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) ELISA Kit

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Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) in samples from serum, plasma or other biological fluids.

Rat Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) ELISA Kit

DLR-CD163-Ra-48T 48T
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Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates or other biological fluids.

Rat Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) ELISA Kit

DLR-CD163-Ra-96T 96T
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Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates or other biological fluids.

Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) ELISA Kit

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Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) ELISA Kit

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Rat Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) ELISA Kit

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Rat Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) ELISA Kit

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Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) ELISA Kit

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Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) ELISA Kit

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Rat Cluster Of Differentiation (CD163) ELISA Kit

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Rabbit Polyclonal antibody Anti-CRBN

Anti-CRBN 50 µg
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Anti-CD163 Antibody

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Anti-CD163 Antibody

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Anti-CD163 Antibody

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Anti-CD163 antibody

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Description: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily, and is exclusively expressed in monocytes and macrophages. It functions as an acute phase-regulated receptor involved in the clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages, and may thereby protect tissues from free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative damage. This protein may also function as an innate immune sensor for bacteria and inducer of local inflammation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.

Anti-CD163 Antibody

STJ500423 100 µg
EUR 571.2

Anti-CD163 Antibody

STJ500424 100 µg
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Anti-CD163 antibody

STJ160082 1 mL C
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Anti-CD163 antibody

STJ16100302 100 µg
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Anti-CD163 antibody

STJ16100324 1 mL
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Anti-CD163 antibody

STJ180301 0.1 ml
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Anti-CD163 antibody

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human CD163 antigen,CD163 LISA kit

201-12-0247 96 tests
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Description: A quantitative ELISA kit for measuring Human in samples from biological fluids.

Human CD163 antigen(CD163)ISA kit

GA-E0263HM-48T 48T
EUR 346.8

Human CD163 antigen(CD163)ISA kit

GA-E0263HM-96T 96T
EUR 559.2

Human CD163 antigen(CD163)ISA kit

QY-E05066 96T
EUR 433.2

Anti-Hu CD163 Purified

11-645-C025 0.025 mg
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Anti-Hu CD163 Purified

11-645-C100 0.1 mg
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Anti-CD163/M130 Antibody

A00812 100ul
EUR 476.4
Description: Rabbit IgG polyclonal antibody for Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type 1 protein M130 (CD163) detection.tested for IF, IHC, WB in Human, Mouse, Rat. Various direct flourescent conjugates are available for FCM upon request. Please contact us for details.

Anti-Hu CD163 APC

1A-645-T025 25 tests
EUR 168

Anti-Hu CD163 APC

1A-645-T100 100 tests
EUR 288

Anti-Hu CD163 PE

1P-645-T025 25 tests
EUR 168

Anti-Hu CD163 PE

1P-645-T100 100 tests
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Anti-CD163/M130 antibody

PAab09771 100 ug
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anti- CD163/M130 Antibody

FNab09771 100µg
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Description: Antibody raised against CD163/M130 

Anti-CD163 Antibody BIOTIN

STJ500425 100 µg
EUR 703.2

Anti-CD163 Antibody FITC

STJ500426 100 µg
EUR 703.2

Anti-CD163 Antibody BIOTIN

STJ500427 100 µg
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Anti-CD163 Antibody FITC

STJ500428 100 µg
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Mouse Anti Human Cd163 Monoclonal Antibody

CABT-47162MH 25 µg
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Mouse Anti Human Cd163 Monoclonal Antibody

CABT-47163MH 0.2 mg
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Polyclonal Goat anti-GST α-form

GST-ANTI-1 50 uL
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GST-ANTI-2 50 uL
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Polyclonal Goat anti-GST p-form

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Anti-CD163 Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody

M00812 100ug/vial
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Description: Rabbit Monoclonal CD163 Antibody. Validated in IP, WB and tested in Human.

Anti-Hu CD163 PE-Cy7

T7-645-T025 25 tests
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Anti-Hu CD163 PE-Cy7

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Anti-Hu CD163 PerCP-Cy5.5

T9-645-T025 25 tests
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Anti-Hu CD163 PerCP-Cy5.5

T9-645-T100 100 tests
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Purified Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630000 100 ug
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APC Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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APC Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116301B1 100 tests
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APC Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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FITC Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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FITC Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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TRITC Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116301H0 100 tests
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TRITC Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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PacBlue Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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PacOrange Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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PacOrange Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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PE Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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PE Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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PE Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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PerCP Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116301S0 25 tests
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PerCP Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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Porcine CD163 antigen,CD163 LISA kit

GA-E0045PC-48T 48T
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Porcine CD163 antigen,CD163 LISA kit

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Canine CD163 antigen(CD163 LISA kit

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CD163 Antibody

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CD163 Antibody

20-abx242956
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CD163 siRNA

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CD163 siRNA

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CD163 Antibody

1-CSB-PA801238LA01HU
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Description: A polyclonal antibody against CD163. Recognizes CD163 from Human. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA, IF; Recommended dilution: IF:1:50-1:200

Cd163 Antibody

1-CSB-PA650452LA01MO
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Description: A polyclonal antibody against Cd163. Recognizes Cd163 from Human, Mouse. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA, WB; Recommended dilution: WB:1:500-1:2000

CD163 Antibody

1-CSB-PA969205
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Description: A polyclonal antibody against CD163. Recognizes CD163 from Human. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA, IHC;ELISA:1:1000-1:2000, IHC:1:25-1:100

CD163 Antibody

DF8235 200ul
EUR 420

Human CD163 shRNA Plasmid

20-abx956176
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Human CD163 ELISA Kit

LF-EK50890 1×96T
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Human CD163 ELISA Kit

ELA-E1726h 96 Tests
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Mouse Anti Rat Cd163 Monoclonal Antibody

DMABT-47170MR 0.25 mg
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Mouse Anti Rat Cd163 Monoclonal Antibody

DMABT-47171MR 0.1 mg
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Anti-Human CD163 DyLight® 488 conjugated Antibody

A00812-Dyl488 100ug/vial
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Anti-Human CD163 DyLight® 550 conjugated Antibody

A00812-Dyl550 100ug/vial
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Mouse Anti-Human CD163 monoclonal antibody, clone JID274

CABT-L2938-100uL500uL 100 uL, 500 uL
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APC/Cy7 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116301C0 25 tests
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APC/Cy7 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116301C1 100 tests
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APC/Cy7 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116301C2 500 tests
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PE/Cy5 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116301L0 25 tests
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PE/Cy5 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116301L1 100 tests
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PE/Cy5 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116301L2 500 tests
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PE/Cy7 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116301M0 25 tests
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PE/Cy7 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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PE/Cy7 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116301M2 500 tests
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PerCP/Cy5.5 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116301T0 25 tests
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PerCP/Cy5.5 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116301T1 100 tests
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PerCP/Cy5.5 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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Human CellExp? CD163, Human recombinant

9226-10
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Human CellExp? CD163, Human recombinant

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iFluor® 350 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630010 100 tests
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iFluor® 350 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 405 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 405 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630021 500 tests
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iFluor® 430 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630030 100 tests
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iFluor® 430 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630031 500 tests
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iFluor® 450 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630040 100 tests
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iFluor® 450 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630041 500 tests
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iFluor® 488 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 488 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 514 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630060 100 tests
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iFluor® 514 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630061 500 tests
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iFluor® 532 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630070 100 tests
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iFluor® 532 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630071 500 tests
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iFluor® 546 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630080 100 tests
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iFluor® 546 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630081 500 tests
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iFluor® 555 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630090 100 tests
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iFluor® 555 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

11630091 500 tests
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iFluor® 560 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300A0 100 tests
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iFluor® 560 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300A1 500 tests
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iFluor® 568 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300B0 100 tests
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iFluor® 568 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300B1 500 tests
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iFluor® 594 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300C0 100 tests
EUR 547

iFluor® 594 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300C1 500 tests
EUR 2051

iFluor® 610 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300D0 100 tests
EUR 547

iFluor® 610 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300D1 500 tests
EUR 2051

iFluor® 633 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300E0 100 tests
EUR 547

iFluor® 633 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300E1 500 tests
EUR 2051

iFluor® 647 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300F0 100 tests
EUR 547

iFluor® 647 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300F1 500 tests
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iFluor® 660 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300G0 100 tests
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iFluor® 660 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 670 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 670 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300H1 500 tests
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iFluor® 680 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300I0 100 tests
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iFluor® 680 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300I1 500 tests
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iFluor® 700 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300J0 100 tests
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iFluor® 700 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 710 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300K0 100 tests
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iFluor® 710 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300K1 500 tests
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iFluor® 750 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 750 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 790 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300M0 100 tests
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iFluor® 790 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 800 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300N0 100 tests
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iFluor® 800 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300N1 500 tests
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iFluor® 810 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 810 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 820 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 820 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300P1 500 tests
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iFluor® 840 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300Q0 100 tests
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iFluor® 840 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 860 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® 860 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® A7 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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iFluor® A7 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300S1 500 tests
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mFluor™ UV375 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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mFluor™ UV375 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300X1 500 tests
EUR 2051

mFluor™ UV460 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

116300Y0 100 tests
EUR 547

mFluor™ UV460 Anti-human CD163 Antibody *GHI/61*

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Mouse Anti Pig Cd163 Monoclonal Antibody,FITC

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EUR 1057.2

Mouse Anti Pig Cd163 Monoclonal Antibody,RPE

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EUR 858

Mouse Anti Rat Cd163 Monoclonal Antibody,Biotin

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EUR 1057.2

Mouse Anti Rat Cd163 Monoclonal Antibody,FITC

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Mouse Anti Rat Cd163 Monoclonal Antibody,RPE

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Anti-CD163 Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody, Clone#RM371

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EUR 462
Description: Anti-CD163 Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody, Clone#RM371 tested in WB, IHC, reactive to Human

CD163 ELISA Kit (Human) (OKBB00786)

OKBB00786 96 Wells
EUR 606
Description: Description of target: CD163(Cluster of Differentiation 163) is a human protein encoded by the CD163 gene. It has also been shown to mark cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163, a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich(SRCR) superfamily, is exclusively expressed by monocytes and macrophages. Using FISH, somatic cell hybrid analysis, and radiation hybrid analysis, CD163 gene was mapped the to chromosome 12p13.3. CD163 is upregulated in a large range of diseases inflammatory diseases including type 2 diabetes, macrophage activation sickness, Tangier's disease, reumatoid arthritis etc.;Species reactivity: Human;Application: ELISA;Assay info: ;Sensitivity: <150pg/ml

CD163 ELISA Kit (Human) (OKBB01513)

OKBB01513 96 Wells
EUR 684
Description: Description of target: CD163(Cluster of Differentiation 163) is a human protein encoded by the CD163 gene. It has also been shown to mark cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163, a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich(SRCR) superfamily, is exclusively expressed by monocytes and macrophages. Using FISH, somatic cell hybrid analysis, and radiation hybrid analysis, CD163 gene was mapped the to chromosome 12p13.3. CD163 is upregulated in a large range of diseases inflammatory diseases including type 2 diabetes, macrophage activation sickness, Tangier's disease, reumatoid arthritis etc.;Species reactivity: Human;Application: ELISA;Assay info: ;Sensitivity: <150pg/ml

Human CD163 PicoKine ELISA Kit

EK0715 96 wells
EUR 510
Description: For quantitative detection of human CD163 in cell culture supernates, serum and plasma(heparin).

CD163 ELISA Kit (Human) (OKAN04666)

OKAN04666 96 Wells
EUR 950.4
Description: Description of target: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily, and is exclusively expressed in monocytes and macrophages. It functions as an acute phase-regulated receptor involved in the clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages, and may thereby protect tissues from free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative damage. This protein may also function as an innate immune sensor for bacteria and inducer of local inflammation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.;Species reactivity: Human;Application: ELISA;Assay info: Assay Methodology: Quantitative Sandwich ELISA;Sensitivity: 0.273 ng/mL

CD163 ORF Vector (Human) (pORF)

ORF017045 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 486

ELISA kit for Human CD163

EK5296 96 tests
EUR 663.6
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for quantification of Human CD163 in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids.

QuickDetect? CD163 (Human) ELISA Kit

K4422-100
EUR 966

CD163 ELISA Kit (Human) (OKCD07621)

OKCD07621 96 Wells
EUR 1123.2
Description: Description of target: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily, and is exclusively expressed in monocytes and macrophages. It functions as an acute phase-regulated receptor involved in the clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages, and may thereby protect tissues from free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative damage. This protein may also function as an innate immune sensor for bacteria and inducer of local inflammation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.;Species reactivity: Human;Application: ELISA;Assay info: ;Sensitivity: < 0.273ng/mL

CD163 antibody (PE)

61R-1319 100 tests
EUR 483.6
Description: Mouse monoclonal CD163 antibody (PE)

CD163 antibody (biotin)

61R-1569 100 ug
EUR 418.8
Description: Mouse monoclonal CD163 antibody (biotin)

CD163 antibody (biotin)

61R-CD163BHUBT 100 ug
EUR 1105.2
Description: Mouse monoclonal CD163 antibody (biotin)

CD163 antibody (biotin)

61R-CD163CHUBT 250 ug
EUR 937.2
Description: Mouse monoclonal CD163 antibody (biotin)

Effect of Serotype and Strain Diversity on Dengue Virus Replication in Australian Mosquito Vectors

Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important mosquito-borne viral pathogen of humans, comprising four serotypes (DENV-1 to -4) with a myriad of genotypes and strains. The kinetics of DENV replication within the mosquito following ingestion of a blood meal influence the pathogen’s ability to reach the salivary glands and thus the transmission potential. The influence of DENV serotype and strain diversity on virus kinetics in the two main vector species, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, has been poorly characterized. We tested whether DENV replication kinetics vary systematically among serotypes and strains, using Australian strains of the two vectors.

Mosquitoes were blood fed with two strains per serotype, and sampled at 3, 6, 10 and 14-days post-exposure. Virus infection in mosquito bodies, and dissemination of virus to legs and wings, was detected using qRT-PCR. For both vectors, we found significant differences among serotypes in proportions of mosquitoes infected, with higher numbers for DENV-1 and -2 versus other serotypes.

Consistent with this, we observed that DENV-1 and -2 generally replicated to higher RNA levels than other serotypes, particularly at earlier time points. There were no significant differences in either speed of infection or dissemination between the mosquito species. Our results suggest that DENV diversity may have important epidemiological consequences by influencing virus kinetics in mosquito vectors.

A Plant Virus Ensures Viral Stability in the Hemolymph of Vector Insects through Suppressing Prophenoloxidase Activation

 

Most plant viruses require vector insects for transmission. Viral stability in the hemolymph of vector insects is a prerequisite for successful transmission of persistent plant viruses. However, knowledge of whether the proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO) affects the stability of persistent plant viruses remains elusive.

Here, we explored the interplay between rice stripe virus (RSV) and the PPO cascade of the vector small brown planthopper. Phenoloxidase (PO) activity was suppressed by RSV by approximately 60%.

When the PPO cascade was activated, we found distinct melanization around RSV particles and serious damage to viral stability in the hemolymph. Viral suppression of PO activity was derived from obstruction of proteolytic cleavage of PPOs by binding of the viral nonstructural protein NS3. These results indicate that RSV attenuates the PPO response to ensure viral stability in the hemolymph of vector insects. Our research provides enlightening cues for controlling the transmission of vector-borne viruses.

IMPORTANCE Large ratios of vector-borne plant viruses circulate in the hemolymph of their vector insects before entering the salivary glands to be transmitted to plants. The stability of virions in the hemolymph is vital in this process. Activation of the proteolytic prophenoloxidase (PPO) to produce active phenoloxidase (PO) is one of the major innate immune pathways in insect hemolymph.

How a plant virus copes with the PPO immune reaction in its vector insect remains unclear. Here, we report that the PPO affects the stability of rice stripe virus (RSV), a notorious rice virus, in the hemolymph of a vector insect, the small brown planthopper. RSV suppresses PPO activation using viral nonstructural protein. Once the level of PO activity is elevated, RSV is melanized and eliminated from the hemolymph. Our work gives valuable clues for developing novel strategies for controlling the transmission of vector-borne plant viruses.

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